Hovertrack Truck. http://www.setechnic.com/Forum/topic2797.html



Semi tracked FR9000 from Hovertrack, The Netherlands, 2011. http://www.hovertrack.nl/index.php?option=




Hovertrack, The Netherlands.    www.ttkrk.co.jp



Hover-Track. http://www.setechnic.com/Forum/topic2797.html


Hovertrack from   http://monsteur-truck-67550.skyrock.com/1.html


Ford Snowmobile, 1915 Model T Motor
1927 Body Touring Pick Up Conversion,
1950 Bombardier Track.    http://www.flickr.com/photos/blondygirl/3626155656/



Vervaert Track Trike. Vervaert, from The Netherlands.



Linn semi-track Truck. Pict Francis Pierre in the 90s.


Linn Model C5 Catruck, 1940, with tracks lowered, 5 ton capacity, dual tires all around. Ride was rough, max speed rather low but, in half-track mode, off-road capabilities were good. Pict from book of F Crismon : US Military Tracked Vehicles, Crestline Publishing (Motorbook), 1983.



Linn C5 wheel-cum-track chassis, 1940. Rear non driven axle could be lowered on roads and tracks were up. Pict of book of Bart H Vanderveen ‘Half-Tracks’, Warne, 1970.



Unic P 107 semi-tracked of 4.5 t for 5-7 persons. 55 hp, 45 km/h, 400 km range. 3224 units were produced until April 1940. Pict J M M at Locomotion en Fête, La Ferté Alais, 2007 06.


Snow-Tractor M7, of Allis-Chalmers Manufacturing Co. used by US Air Force for ground search and rescue in North country during WWII. Pict J M M at Liberty Museum, Overloon, The Nethelands, 2007 04.


Snow-Tractor M7 and Trailer 1-Ton M19 from Allis-Chalmers Manufacturing Co., 63 hp, mass 1191 kg, capacity 227 kg, 64,5 km/h, from USA during WWII. Pict J M M at Liberty Museum, Overloon, The Netherlands, 2009 03.



Allis Chalmers Snow tractor T26E4 (M7), 1944. With 63 hp engine, wheels or skis were fitted at front, E M Tucker tracks 460 mm wide at rear. 291 units were built in 1943 and 1944. www.slovaki.yandex.ru


Fordson F with FTA rigid half-track conversion. Pict  Francis Pierre at Heidrick Museum, Woodland, Ca, in 2000.


Leader Model 25-40 semi-tracked conversion. Pict Francis Pierre at Heidrick Ag History Center, Woodland, California, 2000.


Fordson F with CALH half-track conversion made by Hadfield-Penfield Co., Bucyrus, Ohio. Pict  Francis Pierre at Heidrick Ag Historical Center, Woodland, Ca, 2000.



Ford F with Hadfield-Penfield 'Rigid Rail tracks' from Penfield Steel Co, Bucyrus, Ohio. Pict  Francis Pierre, 1999.


Bates Half-track Model D on Bates Steel Mule. Pict  Francis Pierre at Heidrick Museum, Woodland, Ca, in 2000.


Model A Tudor Sedan snow vehicle at Pionneer Museum, Nebraska, 1929, fitted with Arps Snow Bird conversion, used by the New-York Guard. Pict  Francis Pierre, Minden, Nebraska in 2000.


Model A Tudor Sedan   http://www.jalopyjournal.com/forum/showthread.php?t=229248&showall=1



Leamington half-track conversion for Fordson tractor. Pict. from book Ford Tractor Conversions by Stuart Gibbard, Press Book, 1995.



Iron Dog Early Snowmobile of the 40s primarily used by hunters, trappers and power company service crews.  Pict  Francis Pierre, Pioneer Village Museum, Minden, Nebraska in 2000.



Waldschlepper forestry semi-tracked built just after WWII with parts of RSO tracked vehicle. Pict  Francis Pierre, Speyer Museum, Germany, late 90s.



Ikegai Type-98 Ko-Hi semi-tracked, 1938. 5 t capacity, 110 hp, 5,7 t, 45 km/h.  From 1952.



Marmon Herrington-T9, 1937. Site : //slovari.yandex.ru


Ford-Marmon Herrington Half-track truck T9, late 30s.

Picture from book of Fred Crismon ‘US Military Tracked Vehicles’, Motorbook International Publishers & Wholesalers, 1992.



Half-track truck T8, 1936, issued from Ford components. Trackson Co., Milwaukee, marketed this cable and chain half-track conversion kit, transforming the rear axle with four wheels into a track.

Picture from book of Fred Crismon ‘US Military Tracked Vehicles’, Motorbook International Publishers & Wholesalers, 1992.



Kegresse P112, 1937, Wheel-cum-track system on Citroën chassis designed by Adolphe Kegresse in 1936.  Pict from book of J M Boniface and J G Jeudy : 'Scout cars and half-tracks', EPA, 1989.


Somua MCG-5 Semi-Tracked in the 30s. Pict J M M at Rétromobile, Paris, 2007 02.



Semi tracked Citroën P 17 of Croisière Blanche, managed by Charles Bedaux, 1934, in Rocky Mountains, Canada. The 5 half-tracks were lost due to big rains and mud. Marie and Etienne Christian recuperated three wrecks in 2009 and restored one, which is now at Reynolds Alberta Museum in Wetaskin, Alberta, Canada. Pict of this vehicle by J M M  at Rétromobile, 2010 01. Admiral Byrd used 3 auto-chenilles like these one from 1933 to 1935 to explore South Pôle.    http://www.croisieres-citroen.com/Croisieres_Citroen/Actualites/Entrees/2009/11/1_La_Croisiere_Blanche.html


Half-track Citroën of La Croisière Jaune, 1931-32. Pict J M M at Rétromobile, 2011 02.



Citroën Proto Autochenille P107, 1939, picture J M Maclou at Rétromobile, Paris, on Feb 13, 2004.


Citroën semi-tracked of the 30s. Pictured by J M M at Loco en Fête, La Ferté Alais, 2004 05.



Half-tracks of the Croisière Jaune.  J M M at Schlumpf Museum, Mulhouse, 2003 10.


Half-traks of the Croisière Jaune. J M M at Schlumpf Museum, Mulhouse, 2003 10.



Dual Front Wheels with traction plates on an Army half-track for Arctic Expeditions in 1949/50. Pict from Popular Mechanics, May 1950.



Modified Chevrolet Truck, 1927. Left, tracks are raised and right, lowered with new track bogies where the friction roller is wedged itself between the tyre and the track. Image from US Military Wheeled Vehicles Fred Crismon, Cresline Publising (Motorbook), 1983.



Wolselay-Vickers, 1926, GB, was a wheel-cum-track, not a semi-tracked vehicle. From the site : www.indiandefence.com



Wolseley,Vickers wheel-cum-track car, 1926, England. The track could be lowered for off-road operation. Practically, it was complex and heavy. Pict from the book of Bart H. Vanderveen ‘The Observers Army Vehicles Directory from to 1940’, Warne, 1974.



Removable tracks on Trado System from Daf in the 30s. Pict from 'Wheels and Tracks' N° 74, end of the 90s.



Mechanical Coffin, experimental, invented by Giffard le Quesne Martel in 1935. Wheeled and tracked mode. From 'Wheels and Tracks' N° 28 about 1989.



Quad with rear tracks. Pict J M M at SIMA, Villepinte, France, 2005.


Of the same design : 4orce Mobility Tracker :  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yyT7ZB2yOwg




Tru Trax System, Isanti, Minnesota, on ATV from 1997.




Quad 6x6 John Deere semi-tracked with Omnitrac Tracks, early 2000s.



 Kimpex tracked device on quad to move on snow. A rear a track between the wheels and a directional front ski allows this quad to move only on snow. Kimpex is a distributor, Drummonville, Quebec. Picture J M M from Val d'Isère, August 1990.  



Terra-Gator 2114 prototype. Powered additional tracks were fitted at rear. On road, rear tracks were lifted and the vehicle became a front wheeled drive. Small quantities were manufactured. Terra-Gator is a brand of AGCO Group, i.e. Massey Ferguson, Fendt, Valtra, Challenger.




Half-Track converted from Dodge WC 51 in mid 50s. Tracks came from a Bren Carrier.

Pict from book ‘Scout cars et Half-Tracks’ of  J M Boniface et J G Jeudy, ETAI, 1989.



Allis-Chalmers Tractor Truck, 1915. Originally conceived by C. L. Tolles of Eau Claire, Wisconsin, to cross obstacles, Allis-Chalmers bought patents and ten were assembled in Russia, but never used.



Semi-tracked MAN 4R3 in the 50s. Pict from review 'Schlepper Post', May-June, 1999.






MAN Semi-tracked. Pict J M M, La Locomotion en Fête, La Ferté Alais, 2010 06.



Experimental rubber half-tracks on Ford 7610. Track are from Siloe Research in 1991.

Pict from the book ‘Ford Tractor Conversions', Stuart Gibbard, Farming Press books, 1995.



Yeti track assembly of 1984 by 4X4 Developments Ltd, Dento, Northampton, had introduced a rather unorthodox half-track conversion for FWD vehicles. It could be fitted like a wheel. Invented and patented by Peter Sullivan, the track system is interesting in that it strikes a large object, the whole assembly ’indexes’ (revolves) and the next of the 3 faces becomes the base. An inside epicyclidal gear allows to drive and made automatically revolving. It looks like Terrastar with Tri-Star wheels but with tracks. See Chapter ’Unusual Locomotion’. Pictures from the review 'Power Farming', 1983, and 'Wheels & Tracks' N°5, 1983.



Semi-tracks of Herbst of Wicklow are equipped with a tensioning device operated from the cab. Tension was increased only when slipping occurs to avoid damage tires. Pressure : 0,84 kg/cm², Price : £ 3.700 in 1983. Planned for working in peat or general farming.

Picture from the review 'Power Farming', 1983.



Garrett peat tractor. They were built from 1949 to the 60s, for Ireland peat harvesting. http://www.practical

machinist.com/vb/antique-machinery-history/ot-crawler-tractors-196276/index15.html. Pict from Garrett diesel tractors by RA Whitehead, 1964.



Difco Half-track of Ballintubber Enterprises Ltd, Roscommon, Ireland. J M M archives.

Difco Half track




Semi-tracked tractor on youtube  from  Insolite 2-1 ; Insolite 3 ; Insolite 4 Tractor insolite


Semi-tracked vehicles from site www.maskinisten.net. Lower right is a rubber track suspension of Siloe Research, England, 24 km/h and they claimed that work rate was improved of  20%



Citroën-Kegresse P 112 of 1936 could lower its tracks to lighten weight on wheels. Speed 67 km/h. Pict from book 'Les véhicules Hors Série', by Jacques Borgé and Nicolas Viasnoff, Balland, 1976.



Mercedes 26.29 AK 6x6 and tracks, 1993, to study soils for building. Pict from review France Routes, Dec-Jan 1994.



Astra BM 309, later Fiat-Iveco, 6x6 and foldable tracks, Paris-Dakar Raid, 1985. Pict from review 'VSD', Dec 1984.



Van den Berg BV Track Truck system in the 80s, that could be raised and lowered hydraulically. Tracks were added here on a Mercedes-Benz 6x6 based for soil investigation. A.P. Van den Berg Machinefabriek, Heerenveen, The Netherlands, always sells CPT, Cone Penetration Test, mounted on wheeled and tracked vehicles.



Truck, 4x4, probably a Ginaf, and tracks to study soils for buildings.  www.forum.aceboard.net


Terberg 6x6 and tracks, 1988, on base Volvo 6x6.


Matisa Universal Tracked and Wheeled Vehicle, 1965. Communication at ISTVS by inventor J M Garnier and communicated by J Rémus. This wheel-cum-track vehicle prototype was built by Materiel Industriel SA, Lausanne, Switzerland, which was created in 1945 and is always an important group in railways materiel employing 400 people. Matisa had mass of 2300 kg for 59 hp. On roads, on wheels, only rear wheels were driven, front wheels were steerable by hydraulic jacks. Ground clearance of 460 mm was good and the vehicle was amphibious. Pict from 'Journal of Terramechanics', 1965, Pergamon Press Ltd., now Elsevier.


Smart Half-track, 2002.

Semi-Tracks on tractor. These semi-tracks (Driv or ARPS or else), originally invented by Bombardier, were much used in agriculture and Forestry. They may surround rear wheels (with positive pitch control possible) or all wheels. They were used by Sir Edmund Hillary to reach South Pole in 1958.

arps-half-tracks-h.pdf Arps-half-tracks-h.pdf

driv-half-tracks-h.pdf Driv-half-tracks-h.pdf

arps-semi-tracks-h.pdf Arps-semi-tracks-h.pdf

sergent-half-tracks-h.pdf Sergent-half-tracks-h.pdf

Semi-tracked vehicle, 1980. Home made by M Marineau, North of Chartres, France. Ground pressure 100 g/cm². Front axle can be raised or lowered by cylinders thus providing an active pitch control. Pict from the review 'Agrisept', Feb 1980.

Semi-track proto Jeep, 1941, fitted with Bombardier tracks. www.forum.aceboard.net

Willys MB, modified, Snow Tractor, Half Track, T28, experimental. Bombardier or Chase tracks.  Pict from the book of Bart H. Vanderveen ‘The Observers Fighting Vehicles Directory WWII’, Warne, 1972.

Scammell SV, 2S tractor fitted with overall tracks. From England. Pict from the book of Bart H. Vanderveen ‘The Observers Fighting Vehicles Directory WWII’, Warne, 1972.

Renault GBH 280, 6x6, 1986, and removable tracks in cingoli. It was equipped with an auger and belonged to EDF. Pict from book of J G Jeudy & J M Boniface, Scout cars & Half-tracks, EPA 1978,

Orchard Allis Chalmers Model B on experimental Roadless tracks, 1946.

Pict from the book of Stuart Gibbard, 'Roadless, the Story of Roadless Traction from Tracks to Tractors', Farming Press, 1996.




Rotaped Half-Track on Renault Tractor, invented in 1941. See Chapter : ’Changes around the tracks I’. This picture comes from a Renault Tractor calendar in mid-50s. J M M archives.



These improved Rotaped half-tracks on Fordson Diesel Major included a rigid steel rail to keep the tracks well.

Pict from the book ‘Ford Tractor Conversions', Stuart Gibbard, Farming Press books, 1995.


Fordson Diesel Major with Howard Trencher and Rotapeds (see chapter : ’Changes around the track I’). These original semi-tracks from 1941 had chains to maintain them. They were fitted in 1950 with a rigid steel rail (photo) before returning to chains. Pict of review 'Classic Plant & Machinary', Nov 2008.




Rotaped half-tracks fitted on Fordson Major, at the Smithfield Show, 1952. The chains maintaining tracks are back.

Pict from the book ‘Ford Tractor Conversions, Stuart Gibbard, Farming Press books, 1995.




Enclosed Pneumatic Half-Track, 1966, from H. Okada. Mechanism is sealed by flexible diaphragms to exclude dirt and to contain a lubricant. On test model, slip is 9,5% while it’s 37 % with normal wheels. From 'Journal of Terramachanics', 1966, Vol. 3, N° 1, Pergamon Press and Elsevier.

Enclosed pneumatic track



Tritrac (2 upper pict. with one wheel and skis) and Combitrac (semi-tracked) small Swedish forest machines, tested with 2 tracks  vehicles like the Tillverkare of Sweden. Pict from the book of Tomas Nordfjell : 'Small machines for off-road transportation', Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Garpenberg, 1986.


Semi-tracked toy. J M M at Paris, 2012 11.


Fordson-Roadless Tractor for RAF during WWII, built by Roadless Tractor Company, founded in 1923. J M M at Duxford Museum near Cambridge, 2002 08.



Snow Tractor of Ted Flynn, 1938. Wreck at Cedar City, Utah. See chap 'Change around the track I'. From www.jalopyjournal.com and www.travelpod.com. http://www.flickriver.com/photos/austin7nut/5171999044/


Valmet-911 from www.aggriaffaires.com


Concrete block transporter Krinner seen at Bauma, Germany in 2010.    http://www.bouwma




Alfa-Romeo 800RE. http://mailer.fsu.edu/~akirk/tanks/Italy/ItalianExperimentalTanks.html


GAZ 41 semi-tracked vehicle, 3 manufactured in 1949-1950 but GAZ 47 will be series produced.


Nova snowmobile  in www.jalopyjournal.com http://novaresource.org/rnrarchives05.htm



Centipede Phoenix, 1914. Charles L. Tolles, whose Allis-Chalmers bought patents, who appears to have been associated with the Phoenix Manufacturing Company. Pict from http://www.practical



The Centipede track.


Lombard Log Hauler, 1901. See Chap 'Change around the track I'. Pict from http://www.chromjuwelen.com/en/network/228-blog-hemmings/81403-lombard-the-great-steam-powered-snowmobiling-log-hauling-horse-emancipator.html  and  lower :






Austro-Daimler ADMK-WARK wheel-cum-track vehicle built in Austria at  334 units between 1935 and 1938. Used in mountains, it could transport 6 men at 45 km/h on wheels and 15 km/h on tracks. Mass 1450 kg, 18 hp.


Caterpillar Ecolog 650 on Youtube


Miskin Motoscraper http://www.miskin.com/MotorScraper.htm


DG4 Tracks of Roadless fitted on a 1949 tractor. Pict from book 'Roadless County' of Allan Condie, Allan Condie Publications, 1993.


Roadless skeleton tracks prototype on a Massy Harris 44 Tractor. Pict from the book of Stuart Gibbard, Roadless, the Story of Roadless Traction from Tracks to Tractors, Farming Press, 1996.


DG Half-Tracks Conversion of Roadless County on Massey Harris 744 in the 50s. Pict from book 'Roadless County' of Allan Condie, Allan Condie Publications, 1993.



Fordson E27N Major on Rodless Half-Tracks, 1946. Pict from the book of Stuart Gibbard, Roadless, Farming Press, 1996.

Deserter Buggy from All Cars, 1973, on base of Skoda 1100. Kit of tracks could be mounted without transformations. Pict from review 'Gente Motori' of Feb 1973.


Half-track prototypes for Kubelwagen, 1943.  http://www.starbacks.ca/CapeCanaveral/Lab/1167/evwtrack.html


Half-track prototypes and widener of wheels for Kubelwagen, 1943.  http://www.starbacks.ca/CapeCanaveral/Lab/1167/evwtrack.html

KGBM, Kolesno-Gusenichnaya Boevaya Mashina : Wheeld-Tracked Fighting Machine, Prototype, 1964, Obiekt 19. 300 hp, 80 km/h on land and 10 km/h on water. Additional tracks could be lowered if terrain became too muddy, as it is often the case in Russia. Prototype built at which is now Rubtsovsk Machine Building Plant. Pictured in 2001 at NIII-21 Bronnitsy near Moscow.

Mercedes-Benz L4500R, 1943-44 with semi-track conversion. Pict from the book of Bart H. Vanderveen ‘The Observers Fighting Vehicles Directory WWII’, Warne, 1972.





Prototype Panhard VBL XL of a wheeled-cum track vehicle.





Panhard VBL XL, unveiled in 2006 at Villepinte, innovated with 2 undercarriage retractable rubber tracks. Pict from J. Hadacek, 'Steelmasters', Nov-Dec 2011.



Tatra T 24 semi-tracked, 1931



Tatra T-25 semi-tracked, 1930, The 6x6 T 25 was built at 25 units in 1933-37. Speed 30 km/h. Semi-tracked version was for tests. Site : www.overroad.ru



Tatra T71 half-track, 1932. Proto conversion from 6x4 light truck of the firm. Pict of book of Bart H Vanderveen ‘Half-Tracks’, Warne, 1970.



GAZ VM NATI, 1938, conceived on GAZ-M1 base. Rear Bogie could be fitted with removable rubber tracks driven by friction. Rear axle and chassis was reinforced.



ZIS AT14, 1944


ZIS VMS-33, 1938-40, with additional steel tracks, capacity 1320 kg.


ZIS-22, 1939-41


ZIS VMS-42, 1942-44


GAZ semi-tracked : above GAZ-Kegresse, 1934, below GAZ-VM, 1938.


GAZ Half Tracks. Top : GAZ 60, 1934, Middle : Gaz 60P, 1940, Below, Gaz 65, 1940.



 Half-Track ATV-3 with pneumatic tracks, 1962. It looks like a modified Jeep. See Chap 'Pneumatic Tracks'.    http://lib.ec/b/351445/read



GAZ69-33 NAMI, 1968, semi-tracked vehicle with pneumatic tracks type 'Honeycomb'. These tracks provided an aswer where wheeled vehicles could not go. These tracks absorbed vibrations and protect soils. On the other hand, consumption raised, and tracks wore out faster. They were sensitive to low temperatures and repair was less easy. It seems mobility was less good on water covered roads.                  'http://ussrcar.in/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/GAZ69-33.jpg     http://forum.matrasnik.com/index.php?topic=64.20  and  http://www.off-road-drive.ru/archive/3/Prokol__spustila



Gaz69-33 NAMI      http://forum.matrasnik.com/index.php?topic=64.20  and  http://zhurnal.lib.ru/k/kostin_k_a/komunuzhnykolesa.shtml


TROM 8 articulated from    http://www.youtube.com/user/Offroadvehicle


TROM 8  articulated from     http://www.youtube.com/user/Offroadvehicle



BVSM-80, N°1, 1965-1979 proto built by Pr. D. Antonov, was a 4x4 with retractable tracks. The N° 2 was built in 1980 to the 90s as ambulance. No series production.



BVSM-80 Semi-Tracked Vehicle, 1983, built with GAZ-53 and DT-75 tractor by Rem Ulanov Nikolaevich with the help of Health Ministry, at Kurilovsky, and tested at Moscow. Project was cancelled because of Perestroïka and the vehicle discarded.   



BVSM-80 Semi-Tracked Vehicle.                    http://billy-red.livejournal.com/357798.html


BVSM-80 N° 1 http://fotki.yandex.ru/users/fotokoot/view/490015/?page=4



BM Bolinder Munktel for agriculture converted to forestry tractor with rear tracks in 1952 whose system was recently invented by Bombardier.

Pict from the book ‘Tracks in the Forest’ of Ken Drushka and Hannu Konttinen, published by Timberjack Group Oy, 1997.



BM Volvo 400 Buster, 1968, fitted with a positive pitch control (cylinders) allowing surmounting snow or obstacles. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cbFPuqyuHMg



Tracked vehicles from Youtube : Maskinskyddarna 





Ritscher high clearance halftrack, 1952, for vineyards. Pict  from the book of  Richard H Robinson: ‘ Crawler Tractor Scrapbook’ Part Three, Country Life Ltd, New Zealand, 2000.


Moto Guzzi Mulo Meccanico 3x3. Pict from J M Maclou, Locomotion en Fête, La Ferté Alais, 2012 06.



 John Deere 1070D with bands on wheels.     http://www.baumaschinen



 Ford 4000 and Jones Highlands half-tracks. Two hydraulic jacks allowed it to raise le front wheels for muddy or snowy terrains. Pict  P-A . d'Haussy and Antoine Cornil at Malvern, GB, from review 'Tracteur Retro' of Juil-Aug 2011, Michel Hommel SA.


 County timber tractor with tracks. Many of these tractors were used in Scandinavia. In 1969, nearly 500 County were operating in Norway.  Picture from book ‘County’ of Stuart Gibbard, Farming Press, 1997.


 BM-Volvo SM 360 Nalle built on tractor 350 Boxer, from 1952 to 1956 at Eskilstuna, Sweden. Mass 8,9 T.




 Big Bear 661 of Volvo-Ösa in the 60s. Pict from the book ‘Tracks in the Forest’ of Ken Drushka and Hannu Konttinen, published by Timberjack Group Oy, 1997.



Vevey 560 with half-track, 1952-53.   Pict  from the book of  Richard H Robinson : ‘Crawler Tractor Scrapbook’ Part Three, Country Life Ltd, New Zealand, 2000. Credit : Franz Morgenegg.




Allgeier R 18 with Hülle tracks.




Semi tracked systems Hulle on Deutz Tractor, in the 50s. Pict from Jagliello Brothers in Revue des Engins of AIPETHOAC of F Pierre, Dec 2008.


Ritscher with Anbau Half-Track.      http://www.multi-board.com/board



Ritscher tractor with half-track. 


Grecav tracks are modern rubber tracks :

grecav-tracks.pdf Grecav-tracks.pdf

grecav-tracks-2.pdf Grecav-tracks-2.pdf


Lanz Bulldog      http://www.multi-board.com/board/index.php?page=Thread&threadID=17437


IFA 40 PS Tractor and half track from DDR      http://163177.forum







Halftrack from C60 Chevrolet, Canada. This halftrack prototype was built on the chassis of 60 cwt Chevrolet C60. The tests took place in the M.E.E., Monegeeta. Whilst off-road performance was good, it performed poorly on road.     http://www.trucksplanet.com/catalog/model.php?id=1377 






Vork-2, patented in 2009, is an off-road vehicle with wheels and tracks driven by friction. From Dubna, Russia. http://strannik.flyboard.ru/topic258-30.html






VORK-3 from a 2009 patent, has a track fitted around front wheels to lower ground pressure. From Mickael, a person of Dubna, Russia.




ZIS-33   http://alternathistory.org.ua/alternativnyi-zis-33 


 Type T Christie crawler on Mack Model AB DR 2,5-ton dump truck, in the 20s. Pict of book of Bart H Vanderveen ‘Half-Tracks’, Warne, 1970.


 Scammel heavy breakdown truck was ideal to convert into half-track thanks to the rear walking beams. Pict of book of Bart H Vanderveen ‘Half-Tracks’, Warne, 1970.


 Truck, Half-Track, T9E1 Ford with front driven axle and Marmon Herrington tracks, 1936. Pict of book of Bart H Vanderveen ‘Half-Tracks’, Warne, 1970.


 Oanes Carrier, marketed by Graham Engineering Co, Ltd, London with Bedford cab. It could carry twice its weight. Pict of book of Bart H Vanderveen ‘Half-Tracks’, Warne, 1970.


 Maultier (Mule) semi-tracked conversion, 1941-42 prototype from an Opel Blitz 3-ton 4x2 truck. Series produced by various firms, they used standard Ford, Klöckner (KHD) or Opel chassis. Only 16 km/h. Pict of book of Bart H Vanderveen ‘Half-Tracks’, Warne, 1970.


 Madawaska Co. Tractor, 1926-33.      http://www.practical



 Half-tracks of the 30s. Upper L : Peugeot 201C, 1932, Upper R : From Forenede Automobil Fabriken A.S., Odense, Denmark, 1918-1940, Lower L : Somua from France, in the 30s. Lower R : Unic TU1 low-silhouette from France.



Half-Tracked Ford truck from WWII, Austrialia. Capacity 3 ton.    http://www.ww2incolor.com/australian-forces/Australian+Half-Tracked+Ford+truck.html


Half-track truck of Iguana Technology, patented by David Hansen. See Chap 'Changes around the track II'.     http://iguanatracked




CAT 988 Track Loader, 1968, experimental.  Pict from book of Eric C Orleman : 'Caterpillar Chronicle', MBI 2000.

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