vehicle of the Oulianovsk Automobile Factory (OuAZ)

1 - The experimental vehicle of the Oulianovsk Automobile Factory (OuAZ) at the end of the 60’s contained 4 steered tracks despite its rigid chassis.

 Pict from book of Alain Dupouy, Auto-éditeur : 'Les véhicules tout-terrain N° 13 Tome III'. 1995.



2 - Production on request of the Ural-5920 began in 1982 after a long gestation period beginning in 1968. With its 920 mm wide tracks, the ground pressure does not exceed 0.21 kg/cm2 with 8 tons of payload. Maximum speed 30 km / h.

svg101 prototype of Kropotkin Plant 

3 - The svg101 prototype of Kropotkin Plant, Russia.

BT-361 Tioumen

4 - The BT-361 Tioumen, snow and marsh vehicle, was produced at the Construction Mechanical Plant of Kropotkin, Russia, from 1983. It consisted of two sets of directional tracks hydraulically operated, weighed 46 tones empty and carried 36 tons payload (23 t in difficult terrain). Its caterpillars 1200 mm wide produced a ground pressure of 0.32 kg/cm2. Its 300-hp engine allowed it to reach 12.5 km / h and climb slopes of 20°.
Russia, like Canada, has vast very snowy areas with no roads in winter, and muddy at spring. There are currently many models of tracked vehicles, large or small, heavily used by oil industry, particularly in Northern Siberia. Quote : Universalmash JSC, a subsidiary of JSC "Kirov Plant" in St Petersburg, Machine-building Company : Vityaz, Motex, Unzha SKB Gazstroymashina, JST ‘Transport TTM '.

Amphibious Russian vehicle

5 - Amphibious Russian vehicle. Who knows more?


6 - Slark-1, probably a unique achievement.

Motex Motex MT-04 has reinforced rubber tracks

7 - Motex MT-04 has reinforced rubber tracks for a payload of 200 kg, speed to 25 km / h on land and 5.6 km / h on water. With a diesel engine Kubota 85 hp. and a ground pressure of  0.1 kg/cm2, it behaves very well in swamps as those of Ugra in Western Siberia.

Arctic CT 28 Terberg

8 - In the early 90s, the driver of the Arctic CT 28 Terberg could choose its mode of propulsion. The tractor base 4x4 of 30 t, 40 t with the semi-trailer equipped with low-pressure tires, enabled it to move on already low holder lands. If the conditions deteriorating, they could in two hours fit the tracks and drive on the tundra with a ground pressure of only 0.4 Kg/cm2. Pict of the review 'France Routes', July-Aug 1991.



Metal Plessis on Renault tractor

9 - Metal Plessis, Plessisville, Quebec, exists since 1976 and sells kits with beam suspension, which increases traction of 35% in peat. Here is a Renault tractor equipped with this device.

Water Buffalo of Cuthbertson

10 - James A. Cuthbertson Ltd Biggard, Scotland, put on the market in late 1951 an original tractor, the 'Water Buffalo' 6 t ground pressure of which was only  0.19 kg/cm2. Designed to work in the peat of Scotland, its Albion diesel engine developed 75 hp. A hydrostatic transmission replaced mechanical transmission in 1964. J M M Collection.

Liebherr PR 732 Litronic Carrier

11 - Liebherr built with Orthaus the Litronic Carrier in 2002. Now with Caterpillar, the Company Wilhelm Haddick GmbH & Co. KG, Borken, specializing in drainage and civil engineering sells this crawler carrier under the name Raupen transporter CIT 5719. The 175 hp engine drives the crawler by hydrostatic transmission and the weight of 24 t produces a ground pressure of only 0.24  kgf/cm2. There are also Big Track Bog Master, Difco Bogmiser, Mastenbroek PLD/35 Tracked dumper of Boston, Lincolnshire, excavator LGP of Ballintubber Entreprises in the same category as the Liebherr Carrier.

TV-140 New Holland tractor with tracks of Ballintubber

12 - Picture of an articulated and extended TV-140 New Holland tractor equipped with four wide tracks probably of Ballintubber Entreprises, Roscommon, Ireland.




Terex IS-14B scraper

13 - Terex IS-14B scraper in the late 70s remained at the prototype stage. Pict from the book of Eric Orleman 'Euclid and Terex : Earth-Moving Machines', MBI, 1997.

Bonmartini roller tracked tractor

14 - Count Giovanni Bonmartini had already invented or improved the tire track (see article on pneumatic tracks). He also improved the classic track by taking a quite old idea he adapted on a Fiat farm tractor. Track shoes, mainly rubber, manufactured by Pirelli and fitted with transverse rollers, rolled, decreased friction in bends. The traction strength was increased on roads and hard surfaces. Very comfortable, fast, it did not damage roads. In side slopes, the wished non-parallelism of the rollers allowed not to slip.


15 - The Italian Camoscio around 1978 with a good suspension travel. Probably a  unique model.




16 - Peter H. Matthews, Adelaide, South Africa, patented a light tracks system. He became associated with C. Norris & Son Ltd, Rushden, Northants and added tracks on  a TD-6 all-wheel drive tractor.

  Pict  from the book of  Richard H Robinson : ‘ Crawler Tractor Scrapbook’ Part Two, Country Life Ltd, New Zealand, 2001.



17 - Similarly, one might compare the previous system with the patent of the Russians Vinnik AF and  MM whose goal was to reduce internal friction and increase the towing capacity. From page no more exists.


18 - The contest ‘'Toyota Olympic Ideas' gave each year to employees of Toyota means of achieving a dream related to locomotion. The ranking was public with the advertising requirements. In the early 2000s, Hirotoshi Hikota suggested this all-terrain vehicle for disabled with a front star wheel surrounded by a flexible strip for moving up or down stairs. From 'Book of Inventions'.

Delta Beatle triangular crawler

19 - Another competitor in 1991 won the first prize of the competition by proposing the 'Delta Beatle' triangular crawler with a mobile strip on each triangle. These latter could spin on themselves. Amazing ! From book of Anne-Valérie Giscard d'Estaing 'Book of Inventions' around 1990.

Iguana of David Hansen

20 - David Hansen responded to a call for tenders from the U.S. Marine Corp for an off-road vehicle for marginal lands that could be carried on the tilt rotor MV-22 Osprey. He created

Iguana Technologies, Ilwaco, Washington, embedding TSG in 2000. The Iguana (photo) was the result of 18 years of research. With a ground pressure of  0.07 kg/cm2 for a total mass of 2.5 tones, the propulsion system, very green, was protected by numerous patents. Both sides of the vehicle were connected  by a positive pitch control hinge allowing the vehicle to cross a wall 1.2 m high. The 200 hp came from diesel engine, the same as the trading Hummer H1. In raising the front of the vehicle by controlling pitch, he could surf on the surface of water at 60 km / h using only its tracks. 2008 saw the end of the company and the vehicles were sold on the Internet. http://iguanatracked

Fast Track Amphibian

21 - The Fast-Track prototype built by Fast Track Amphibian LLC, Hurst, Texas, is a 2007 prototype of amphibious vehicle whose main characteristic is the rapid propulsion in water (60 km / h) and land (90 km / h) only by its tracks. http://www.fasttrack

Twin Bogie of Kockums

22 - The Twin Bogie of Kockums Industrier AB Söderhamn, Sweden, mid 80s, was tested in the mid-80s on a logging vehicle equipped with eight drive tracks whose balance suspension turned itself over the obstacle to help crossing. J M M collection.

Tri-Trac-Mover for slopes

23 - The Research Institute of Forest Products of Japan realized in 1995 the prototype of Tri-Trac-Mover able to easily cross the slopes strewn with obstacles. Equipped with many hydraulic cylinders and a diesel engine by tread, it could cross the barriers of 1.3 m and stay level on slopes of 28 degrees.

Martin track

24 - Martin track, invented by Edward Martin Comellas, consisted of a set of modules of duty rubber and shaped quadrilaterals sprockets. The whole share the load better and respected the land by the absence of spikes. A caterpillar of this type was tested on an F4-Dion in collaboration with the Canadian Institute of Engineering Forestry Research (FERIC) and University of Laval. The test report of December 1994 stipulated that the track too soft did not suit in the forest. http://www.foret






Lunar locomotion by M. G. Bekker

25 - M. G. Bekker realized this scaled articulated prototype in the 60s to test different modes of possible locomotion for a future lunar vehicle.




Cuthbertson land Rover

26 - The caterpillar adaptation of Cuthbertson, Biggar, Scotland, instead of wheels on the Land Rover of the British Army lasted from 1968 to 1972 during which approximately 15 units were built. The surface pressure did not exceed 0.13 kg/cm2 and allowed to cross the wetlands.

UNA-Track set on M 715

27 - It seems that the first to market a set of 4 tracks instead of wheels was UNA-Track in 1973. The kit was tested by two U.S. Army vehicles, M 151 and M 715, with payloads of  0.4 and 1.1 tones and a maximum speed of 25 km / h on snow or sandy soil. Tests were conducted at Fort Greely in Alaka. Despite some premature wear and a need to strengthen guidance, the concept was recognized as valid and much like modern kits abound now on the market : ATI, Soucy, ATV Tracks, Mattracks and Lifefoot, Kimpex, Tattoo, Versatracks, AD Boivin.

Donzilla of Team Lance Garage

28 - The Donzilla Four Tracks Vehicle was built for agricultural use in 2002 by Don Kauer in a small farm near Hillsboro, Oregon.

Sno-Cat 743 of Sir Vivian Fuchs

29 - You can see on this photo taken in April 2005 by J M Maclou from an unusual angle, the Sno-Cat 743 of Tucker Sno-Cat Corp., Medford, Oregon, belonging to the Science Museum of Wroughton, England. It was employed by Sir Vivian Fuchs in the 1957 'Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition'. Of the three used, only this one was back home.

Caterpillar 988 with crawlers

30 - 1967 Caterpillar 988 equipped of prototype crawlers instead of tires, expected more reliable on rocks.

  Pict from book of Eric C Orleman : ' Caterpillar Chronicle', MBI 2000.



Kaiser walking excavator

31 - This Kaiser like walking excavator has a certain allure.


Sercel-Mertz geo-seismic vibrator

32 - Sercel Mertz geo-seismic research vibrator with kit ATI High Idler.

Barford BIG-Trax-10

33 - The Barford BIG-Trax-10, 10-ton capacity built since 2007 on the site of the old factory-Aveling Barford, Grangham, Lincolnshire.


'Hard Mobile Launcher Mobility Test Vehicle'

34 - The 'Hard Mobile Launcher Mobility Test Vehicle' equipped with flexible Caterpillar tracks tested here in the desert of Arizona between 1988 and 1991. There was also a wheeled version.

Wolverine of TAGSS

35 - Wolverine, four tracked skid steering vehicle manufactured by TAGSS (Tactical Amphibious Ground Support Systems), White City, Saskatchewan, is available in several versions including the most powerful of 60 hp. https://www.gsa


Kassborher Flexmobil with the driven trailer

36 - Helping with hydraulic motors for propulsion of Kassborher Flexmobil, the driven (or undriven, choice) trailer  is clearly visible in this photo taken in August 1989 by J M M at Val d'Isère, France.