Chopper on Internet from the site : www.strangevehicles.com



Rolligon on Farm-O-Road of Crosley, 1954,  modified by Bergen Engineering and Development Corp., New Jersey. Picture from book of Fred Crismon ‘US Military Wheeled Vehicles’, Crestline Publishing (Motorbook), 1983.



1x1 Carrier, about 1965, with drum shaped wheel. This invention, like many others, was not adapted. This one did not offered sufficient mobility. Picture from book of Fred Crismon ‘US Military Wheeled Vehicles’, Crestline Publishing (Motorbook), 1983.



Renault Ares 640 three wheels trike in the 90s. Renault stands in Boulogne, France. From www.renaultoloog.nl


Terra Gator 8133 of Agco at SIMA, Villepinte, 2005 03. Pict J M M.



Challenger Terra Gator TG8333 CVT 330-360 ch    http://forum.grostracteurs




AS 24 FN of Herstal, Belgium. Pict J M M  at Locomotion en fête, La Ferté Alais, 2008 06.




AS 24 of FN. Pict J M M at Loco en Fête, La Ferté Alais, 2009 06 13.


Trailer of FN Tricar. Pict J M M, La Locomotion en Fête, La Ferté Alais, 2011 05.



FN AS 24 and trailer from Herstal, Belgium.



Tricar FN AS24, 3x2, built at 460 copies from 1960 by FN Herstal, Belgium. It was fitted with Lypsoïd tires and had a mass of 224 kg. A trailer can be seen. Pict J M M on 2009 02 at Brussells Aviation Museum.



All Terrain bicycles. Pict J M M at Le Lioran, France, 2010 08.



Hansa-Lloyd Tractor, Treff-As, 1917. From Bream, Germany. Hollow wheels were more than 3 m diameter. http://slovari.yandex.ru/~книги/Военные автомобили/ГАНЗА-ЛЛОЙД/



Charles Taylor's One Wheel Experiment. C Taylor, Golden, Colorado,  thought, since 1939,  4 or 2 wheeled vehicles were able to run on flat ground but unsuited to mountain trails. He had engineering capabilities to build working prototypes of one wheel with gyroscopes. All steering and balance were electro-mechanical, there were no computers.  He filled patent in 1960 and tested them until mid-60s but if unusual, they were not really off-road. http://blog.hemmings.com/index.php/2008/06/05/tractor-tires-and-gyroscopes-charles-taylors-one-wheel-experiments/


 Cugnot's Fardier, the very first car, exposed nowadays at Arts & Métiers Conservatory in Paris. It was not off-road since almost all the weight is on the front narrow wheel. Pictured by J M M on 5 February 2004, Paris.



Motorcycle 2x2     www.mascus.ru


Erlau Protect  Chains. Pict J M M, Intermat, Villepinte, 2009 04.


TY Cushion OTR solid tires by Ewald Industrial Tire & Wheel, Indiana. Pict J M M at Intermat, Villepinte, 2009 04.



Old wheel seen on Internet. Levers must replace tires.


 Chains for tractor wheel. From site www.fao.org



Meili wheel cage for agriculture in the 50s. Picture from book of Gerold Röthlin ‘Meili, from Autotractor to modern special vehicles’ from Verlag Gerold Röthlin, Kriens, 2004.



Snow Foot Car from Russia for snowy terrains. http://jalopnik.com/5458988/snow-foot-car-proves-russias-still-got-it


Homemade 3x2 from Russia seen on youtube :  Каракат



Motorcycle 3x2.


 Motorcycle 3x2 Iz. 40 km/h, capacity 50 kg, trailer 200 kg, Built at JSC "Izhevsk Moto", part of Ijmach Holding, Russia.


 Trike 3x2      club4x4.ru!imgs!1924.jpg



 Cage Wheels from Elk (Bedford) Ltd, Beds, GB in 1983, made of hard-wood slats on welded steel rims. Ground pressure 0,2 kg/cm². From Power Farming, 1983.


Steel Wheel of Yield wheel from Cab-Craft Lyd, Wolver Hampton, GB in 1983. It was a steel construction with horizontal lugs angled at 30°. Stated to produce shallower rutting and less compaction than single tires, duals, standard cage wheels or tires and cages combined. From Power Farming, 1983.


 Wrap Around Tracks fitted to existing tires to make them wider, until 1,6 m. Around 1990, probably made by Hultdins, Sweden and Canada.



Three wheels type marsh Buggy in aluminum. Floats with 272 kg payload, has a hydraulic winch. Manufactured in Louisiana.  http://www.impact-enterprises.com/photo/0519011a.jpg

http://www.impact-enterprises.com/0519.htm § 5.19.11



Wave less road roller, 1926, with Orolo tracks, built by J Allen & Sons, Oxford. Pict from the book of Stuart Gibbard, Roadless, the Story of Roadless Traction from Tracks to Tractors, Farming Press, 1996.




Appelt Trailbreaker 2x3 cargo and personal vehicle, 1959, from Appelt-Midwestern Trailtractor Co, Houston, Texas, for petroleum industries. 250 hp, 16 km/h, 5 in water. Final drive is by roller chain. Range 320 km. Francis Pierre archives.

 appelt-trailbreaker.pdf Appelt-trailbreaker.pdf


LeTourneau Tree Roller, 1954, designed to clear forests. Many other large forestry machines will be built by the well-known R.G. LeTourneau, which was a pioneer in big earthmoving machines. Pict from a brochure.



Letourneau Tree Crusher in action  http://www.samocho






Letourneau TTC Crusher, Transphibian Tactical Crusher built for US Army about 1970 at 2 copies. Mass 95-ton, 475 hp, One wheel, 3,7 m diameter weights 25 t and nevertheless allows to floats. http://shusharmor.





'Star Wheel' Tree Crusher of Letourneau, 1965, prototype model featured with steel hexagonal wheels to knock down large trees with its T shaped push beam. Engine Detroit Diesel 475 hp. Tree Crushers were built from 1956 to 1967 in different series (like series 'G') and different sizes. Pict J M M collection.





Transphibian Tactical Crusher Model 34x30, 1967, equipped here with high floatation hexagon drums, for Us Army. Pict from book of Eric C. Orleman : 'R.G. LeTourneau Heavy Equipment, 1921-1953', Iconografix, Inc, 2008.



Arctic Cat Cub, 1965-66, with 2 wheels drive 45 produced in 65, 28 in 66. This minibike was manufactured by Arctic Entreprises which sold many snowmobiles and until today.



Terra Cat Mini Bike, 1980, of Ranking MFG, Inc, Durand, Michigan, with wide tires but one wheel driven.




Rokon 2x2 Motorcycle, Pict J M M, Sinsheim Museum, Germany on 2005 04.


Rokon Scout 2x2 from the early 80s, 6 hp, 56 km/h, goes anywhere. Rokon was created by Charles Fehn in 1950 and produced in the late 50s by Nethercutt Industries and called Rokon in 1963. From the beginning, these 2 wheeled drive machines caught the imagination of many. Today, Rokon International Inc. is located at Rochester, NH.


Rokon Ranger CII, 1978



Rokon motorcycle



Rokon 2x2.  Pict Francis Pierre, Pioneer Village Museum, Minden, Nebraska in 2000.



Seiga amphibious harvester. F. Pierre archives.

seiga-amphibious-harvester.pdf Seiga-amphibious-harvester.pdf



Rolligon 2250 2x2 two-bag drive model 2250 in late 50s early 60s. Payload 422 kg or 5 men, one and two-bag trailers available could be powered, speed 15 to 30 km/h on land, 5 km/h in water, hydraulic steering, turning radius 4,5 m, chain driven, 18 hp air cooled gasoline, hydrostatic transmission 2 speed forward and reverse. From Rolligon Corporation, 1602 Old Spanish Trail, PO Box 20096, Houston, Texas 77025,USA.

At that time, nobody was surprised nothing.


Three-roller Dodge Power Wagon. Earlier version 3x2. Pict from the book of J M Boniface & J G Jeudy 'Dodge, cinq générations de tout terrain' EPA, 1993.


Three-roller Dodge Power Wagon 3x3 from 1953-54 invented by William Albee and built by the West Coast Machinery Company of Stockton, California. 135 Hp Chrysler engine. Rolligons of W. Albee served as suspensions. Pict from the book of J M Boniface & J G Jeudy 'Dodge, cinq générations de tout terrain' EPA, 1993.


Three (3x3 ?) Rolligons vehicle of Albee Rolligon Company of Monterey in 1956, Ca, (See Chapter on Rolligons).


Rolligon Model 2251 3x3 with sidecar attachment. Pict F. Pierre collection.

Rolligon Vehicles 3x3, 2x2, 6x6, 4x4



MVTOu-1 of Nami Institute in the 50s. Pict from book of Alain Dupouy, Auto-éditeur : 'Les véhicules tout-terrain N° 11 Tome I'. 1995.



Multidrive Pulse Propulsion Trailer (PPT) about 2004, carried 6 T and assists in the self-recovery of the towing vehicle. Its central hydraulic actuated drawbar could pull the towing vehicle as an inching system. Central tire inflation, independent air suspensions, Air Operated self-leveling system. It doesn't seem they were series produced. Pict J M M collection.



OEC, Osborn Engineering Co., Ltd of Gosport, Hants first prototype of a 6 wheeled motorbike, 1928. Off-road performance could be enhanced by placing an 'overall chain' over the bogie. The second rear wheel was driven by an internal-toothed belt from the chain-driven first. Machines were offered commercially as tractors. Pict from 'Wheels & Tracks' N° 74, about 2011.




Moto-Guzzi Tre-per-Tre 3x3 Mulo Meccanico was manufactured by SEIMM, Mandello del Lorio, Co, Italy, from1961 to 1963 at 420 copies for mountain mobility of the Italian Army. Nevertheless, the unsafe height of driver's position, power engine too weak : 20 hp, make it disappointing despite variable rear track from 1300 to 850 and additional tracks which could be added on rear wheels making of the Mule an Half Track. Price was high. It was replaced by 4WD Frescia F 18 Mountain Utility Vehicle pedestrian controlled platform. Picture taken at Rétromobile by J M M, in Paris, February 2007.

Moto-Guzzi Mechanical Mule 3x3


Moto-Guzzi 3x3 "Mulo Meccanico" here with tracks at the rear.



Three wheeled Lysoïd tired car prototype of the early 50s in Hungary. Steering by hand brakes on the rear wheels and idler wheel at the front. Pict from Wheels & Tracks N° 38, 1992.



SAMT (Sled, Amphibious, Marginal Terrain), 2 drums, prototype from Army Engineer Research and Development at Fort Belvoir, in 1965. An operation could last 1 hour maximum, and the SAMT was designed to be abandoned on the field after the mission. 15 hp. Picture from book of Fred Crismon ‘US Military Wheeled Vehicles’,
Crestline Publishing (Motorbook), 1983.

vehicles-for-traversing-the-twilight-zones-1966-h.pdf Vehicles-for-traversing-the-twilight-zones-1966-h.pdf



2x2 Motorcycle prototype from Ets Merlin-Gerin-Debuit and DGA, 1943-1947. 62 km/h, 155 kg. It had good off-road performance at that time. Pict from the book ‘Les véhicules Hors série’ of Jacques Borgé and Nicolas Viasnoff, Balland, 1976.


2x2 Motorbike from Alexis Garagashyan.     http://strannik.flyboard.ru/topic294-15.html


2x2 Motorbike Leopard, from Alexis Garagashyan, 30 to 80 km/h according to transmission.     http://strannik-v.ru/topic294-15.html    http://strannik.flyboard.ru/topic294-15.html


Civar 2x2, 2005, 120 kg, 95 km/h, ground clearance 400 mm,  from http://moto.kiev.ua/issue/design/3474251105



7-0-HP-Gasoline-Mini-Farm-Tiller-DM900 from China equipped with wheels with interchangeable blades.   http://www.made-in-china.com/showroom/dasmotor/product-detailnbtmKhiGaOkP/China-7-0-HP-Gasoline-Mini-Farm-Tiller-DM900.html


Hydromobile, 1942. Structure is in wood and all wheels are retractable thanks to a complex system of chain transmission. Ford V8 100 hp powerful engine allows fast speed. Collection of Museum of Manoir of Lohéac, France. Pict J M M at Rétromobile, Paris, 2012 02 03.